After 5 months of active recruiting, the seven trial sites had not enrolled enough patients. A fundamental challenge of recruiting patients for any UC study is the low prevalence of UC indication and the random nature of flareups. It takes an experienced recruiting provider to know how to target and engage prospective UC patients. For this particular study, a further complication was other available competitive studies which confused patients. Several vaccine requirements and complicated Inclusion/Exclusion criteria excluded large percentages of referred patients.